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Vocabulary

Words that are repeated throughout the World Press Review Iraq Anthology 1981-2003.

All definitions are from Webster’s New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition, except where noted.


arms: any instruments used in fighting; weapons
“The Soviet Union sold about $10 billion worth of arms to Iraq.”

biological weapons: any infectious agent such as a bacteria or virus when used intentionally to inflict harm upon others. This definition is often expanded to include biologically-derived toxins and poisons. Biological warfare agents include both living microorganisms (bacteria, protozoa, rickettsia, viruses, and fungi), and toxins (chemicals) produced by microorganisms, plants, or animals. (Some authors classify toxins as chemical rather than biological agents, but most do not, and they were included within the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention-as reflected in its formal title, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction).
Source: terrorismfiles.org

Baath Party: Arab political party advocating the formation of a single Arab socialist nation. It has branches in many Middle Eastern countries and has been the ruling party in Syria and Iraq.
“‘Not only will Saddam Hussein be brought down, but the rule of the Baath Party will be terminated.’”
Source: Encyclopædia Britannica

chemical weapons:weapons charged with toxic chemical substances-whether gaseous, liquid or solid-which are used for their direct toxic effects on man, animals or plants
“...the 149 nations participating in January's Paris conference on chemical weapons...signed by consensus a solemn promise not to use chemical weapons.”
Source: Educational Module on Chemical & Biological Weapons (non)-Proliferation

fundamentalism: a strict adherence to or interpretation of a doctrine, set of principles, etc., as of a social, legal, political or religious group or system
“‘Islamic fundamentalism is being replaced by what was considered only a few months ago decadent Western-style nationalism.’”

infidel: a person who does not believe in a particular religion, especially the prevailing religion; specifically, a) among Christians, a non-Christian b) among Muslims, a non-Muslim
“‘We are fighting a religious war. These rulers in Baghdad are infidels.’”

influence: the ability of a person or group to produce effects indirectly by means of power based on wealth, high position, etc.; implies the power of persons or things (whether or not exerted consciously or overtly) to affect others
“It is also interested in influence at the expense of its sophisticated industrial rival, the Soviet Union.”

Iran-Iraq War: (1980–90), prolonged military conflict between Iran and Iraq during the 1980s. The war began on Sept. 22, 1980, when Iraqi armed forces invaded western Iran along the countries' joint border. It ended in July 1988, with Iran forced to accept the terms of a United Nations-mandated cease-fire.
“‘If hypocrisy could kill as chemical weapons do, we would all be dead from the toxic fumes here,’ said one scandalized representative of a European country that was neutral in the Iran-Iraq War.”
Source: Encyclopædia Britannica

nuclear weapon: (also called atomic weapon, or thermonuclear weapon) bomb or other warhead that derives its force from either the fission or the fusion of atomic nuclei and is delivered by an aircraft, missile, Earth satellite, or other strategic delivery system.
“Though the idea of striking pre-emptively to eliminate a developing nuclear weapon capability of a potential adversary has been discussed often, this is the first time it has been implemented.”
Source: Encyclopædia Britannica

neutral/neutrality: the status or policy of a nation not participating directly or indirectly in a war between other nations
“With the United States preaching neutrality but supplying radar to countries like Saudi Arabia…”

regime: a particular administration or government
“The Baghdad regime had been threatening to use these planes for months, and recently did so.”

sanction: : a coercive measure, as a blockade of shipping, usually taken by several nations together, for forcing a nation considered to have violated international law to end the violation
“Iraq violated the ban in the face of worldwide indifference, without being explicitly condemned or having any sanctions proposed against it in Paris.”

Shiite: a member of one of the two great sects of Muslims: Shiites consider Ali, Mohammed's son-in-law and the fourth of the caliphs, as the first Imam and the rightful successor of Mohammed, and do not accept the Sunna as authoritative
“‘We will eventually have a Shiite religious leadership ruling in Baghdad…’”

caliph: supreme ruler: the title taken by Mohammed’s successors as secular and religious heads of Islam

imam: (a) the leader of prayer in a Muslim mosque
(b) [often I-] any of various Muslim leaders and rulers; often used as a title

Sunna: Muslim law based, according to tradition, on the teachings and practices of Mohammed and observed by orthodox Muslims: a supplement to the Koran


United Nations Security Council: The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the U.N. Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Council has 15 members: five permanent members and 10 elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. Each Council member has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the 15 members. Decisions on substantive matters require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of "great Power unanimity", often referred to as the "veto" power. Under the Charter, all Members of the U.N. agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the U.N. make recommendations to Governments, the Council alone has the power to take decisions which Member States are obligated under the Charter to carry out.
“...all five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council...”
Source: The United Nations

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