Background: Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The new government, led by President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, signed a South African brokered ceasefire with the country's last rebel group in September of 2006 but still faces many challenges.
Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Area land: 25,680 sq km
Area water: 2,150 sq km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
Country name conventional short form: Burundi
Country name former: Urundi
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 2,360,214/female 2,335,541); 15-64 years: 51.6% (male 2,598,011/female 2,669,376); 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 101,207/female 151,841) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 3.462% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 41.01 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 9.61 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: 3.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 61.82 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 57.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.78 years; male: 57.09 years; female: 60.52 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 6.16 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.3% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 180,000 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 15,000 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Burundian(s); adjective: Burundian;
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000;
Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%;
Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 59.3%; male: 67.3%; female: 52.2% (2000 est.);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.418 billion (2010 est.); $3.29 billion (2009 est.); $3.178 billion (2008 est.);
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.469 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (2010 est.); 3.5% (2009 est.); 4.5% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $300 (2010 est.); $300 (2009 est.); $300 (2008 est.);
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 31.6%; industry: 21.4%; services: 47% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 68% (2002 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%; highest 10%: 28% (2006);
Labor force: 4.245 million (2007);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 93.6%; industry: 2.3%; services: 4.1% (2002 est.);
Unemployment rate: NA%;
Budget: revenues: $386.3 million; expenditures: $476.2 million (2010 est.);
Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing;
Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 92 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 125.6 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 40 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2007 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
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Although much more of the world's population has access to clean water than a decade ago, sanitation progress in Africa continues to stagnate.
Four years after a young French aid worker was assassinated in a small Burundian town, family members and coworkers are still pressing for a proper investigation.
Disabled people in countries like Burundi and the Congo face harsh discrimination, but organizers are advocating for their rights and advancement.
Burundi's future appeared rosy as international donors pledged $665.6 million in May for a three-year poverty reduction plan, but a brewing political crisis could upset everything.