Background: Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later. In 2011, Hungary assumed the six-month rotating presidency of the EU for the first time.
Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Area land: 89,608 sq km
Area water: 3,420 sq km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
Country name conventional short form: Hungary
Country name former: Republic of Hungary
Population: 9,976,062 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.9% (male 767,824/female 721,242); 15-64 years: 68.2% (male 3,361,538/female 3,444,450); 65 years and over: 16.9% (male 622,426/female 1,058,582) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: -0.17% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 9.6 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 12.68 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.057 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female; total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.31 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.57 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.79 years; male: 71.04 years; female: 78.76 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,000 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Hungarian(s); adjective: Hungarian;
Ethnic groups: Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census);
Religions: Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census);
Languages: Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 99.4%; male: 99.5%; female: 99.3% (2003 est.);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $190 billion (2010 est.); $188.5 billion (2009 est.); $201.2 billion (2008 est.);
GDP (official exchange rate): $132.3 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2010 est.); -6.3% (2009 est.); 0.6% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $19,000 (2010 est.); $18,800 (2009 est.); $20,100 (2008 est.);
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.3%; industry: 30.8%; services: 65.9% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 13.9% (2010);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%; highest 10%: 22.6% (2009);
Labor force: 4.3 million (2010 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.7%; industry: 30.9%; services: 64.4% (2010);
Unemployment rate: 10.7% (2010 est.); 11.4% (2009 est.);
Budget: revenues: $63.1 billion; expenditures: $67.31 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles;
Industrial production growth rate: 11% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 37.55 billion kWh (2010 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 42.7 billion kWh (2010 est.);
Electricity - exports: 4.703 billion kWh (2010 est.);
Electricity - imports: 9.879 billion kWh (2010 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
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(Independent political weekly), Budapest
(Liberal weekly), Budapest
(Weekly (German)), Budapest
(Weekly (Hungarian)), Fejer
(Independent weekly), Budapest
(independent weekly), Budapest
Displaying 1 to 4 of 12 items.
With top energy producers in South-Eastern Europe vying for shares of the market, current pipeline competition will shape energy and political landscapes for the near future.
Countries of Central Europe, especially the Czech Republic and Hungary, are used as centers for coordination, communication and conciliation between very powerful international crime syndicates.
Former top Czech spy Karl Koecher comments on the two decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Countries around the world have taken preventive measures against a potential outbreak of bird flu, which has killed more than 60 people in Southeast Asia since it was first discovered in 2003.