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Mongolia

Map Mongolia
Maps copyright Hammond World Atlas Corp.

Flag of Mongolia

Facts

Background: The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. The prime minister and most cabinet members are MPP members.
Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Area land: 1,553,556 sq km
Area water: 10,560 sq km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Country name conventional long form: none
Country name conventional short form: Mongolia
Country name former: Outer Mongolia
Population: 3,133,318 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.3% (male 437,241/female 419,693); 15-64 years: 68.7% (male 1,074,949/female 1,076,455); 65 years and over: 4% (male 54,415/female 70,565) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 1.489% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 20.93 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 6.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 37.26 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 40.26 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 34.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.31 years; male: 65.85 years; female: 70.89 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 2.21 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 500 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s); adjective: Mongolian;
Ethnic groups: Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000);
Religions: Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004);
Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 97.8%; male: 98%; female: 97.5% (2000 census);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $10.08 billion (2010 est.); $9.5 billion (2009 est.); $9.654 billion (2008 est.);

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $5.807 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 6.1% (2010 est.); -1.6% (2009 est.); 8.9% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,300 (2010 est.); $3,100 (2009 est.); $3,200 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%; industry: 31%; services: 54% (2009 est.);
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2004);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%; highest 10%: 24.9% (2005);
Labor force: 1.068 million (2008);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 34%; industry: 5%; services: 61% (2008);
Unemployment rate: 11.5% (2009); 2.8% (2008);
Budget: revenues: $2.26 billion; expenditures: $2.26 billion (2009);
Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing;
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2006 est.);
Electricity - production: 4.5 billion kWh (2009);
Electricity - consumption: 3.023 billion kWh (2009);
Electricity - exports: 20.7 million kWh (2009);
Electricity - imports: 214.1 million kWh (2009);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.

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