Background: Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.
Location: Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Area land: 786,380 sq km
Area water: 13,000 sq km
Coastline: 2,470 km
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
Country name conventional short form: Mozambique
Country name former: Portuguese East Africa
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.9% (male 5,295,776/female 5,245,485); 15-64 years: 51.1% (male 5,550,501/female 6,174,668); 65 years and over: 3% (male 313,892/female 368,536) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 2.444% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 39.62 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.017 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 78.95 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 81.18 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 76.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.78 years; male: 51.01 years; female: 52.57 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 5.46 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.5% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.4 million (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 74,000 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s); adjective: Mozambican;
Ethnic groups: African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%;
Religions: Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census);
Languages: Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 47.8%; male: 63.5%; female: 32.7% (2003 est.);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $22.19 billion (2010 est.); $20.49 billion (2009 est.); $19.28 billion (2008 est.);
GDP (official exchange rate): $10.21 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 8.3% (2010 est.); 6.3% (2009 est.); 6.8% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,000 (2010 est.); $900 (2009 est.); $900 (2008 est.);
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 28.8%; industry: 26%; services: 45.2% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 70% (2001 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.1%; highest 10%: 39.2% (2003);
Labor force: 9.87 million (2010 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 81%; industry: 6%; services: 13% (1997 est.);
Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.);
Budget: revenues: $2.346 billion; expenditures: $2.898 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco;
Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 15.91 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 10.16 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 11.82 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - imports: 8.278 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
(Government-owned news agency), Maputo
Displaying 1 to 4 of 6 items.
Many have missed out on the economic boom of the past decade that has seen robust growth rates but which has been largely driven by huge capital investments that have created few employment opportunities.
In the climactic scene of what has been the most popular play showing in Maputo, the citizens of a crime-ridden suburb take matters into their own hands.
Moses Serugo, writing for The Monitor of Kampala, reviews an art show by Mozambican artist Feil dos Santos that features land-mines and AK-47s made into art.
World Press Review contributing editor Dave Clemens remembers assassinated journalist Carlos Cardoso.