Background: Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment that would allow him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, a military coup deposed TANDJA, immediately suspended the constitution and dissolved the Cabinet, and promised that elections would be held following a transitional period of unspecified duration. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A predominately Tuareg ethnic group emerged in February 2007, the Nigerien Movement for Justice (MNJ), and attacked several military targets in Niger's northern region throughout 2007 and 2008. Successful government offensives in 2009 limited the rebels' operational capabilities.
Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Area land: 1,266,700 sq km
Area water: 300 sq km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Niger
Country name conventional short form: Niger
Country name former: Republic of Niger
Population: 16,468,886 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 49.6% (male 4,129,164/female 4,045,412); 15-64 years: 48% (male 3,944,586/female 3,964,249); 65 years and over: 2.3% (male 170,741/female 214,734) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 3.643% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 50.54 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 14.11 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 112.22 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 117.19 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 107.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.4 years; male: 52.13 years; female: 54.7 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 7.6 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 61,000 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,300 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s); adjective: Nigerien;
Ethnic groups: Haoussa 55.4%, Djerma Sonrai 21%, Tuareg 9.3%, Peuhl 8.5%, Kanouri Manga 4.7%, other 1.2% (2001 census);
Religions: Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%;
Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma;
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 28.7%; male: 42.9%; female: 15.1% (2005 est.);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $10.58 billion (2010 est.); $10.22 billion (2009 est.); $10.35 billion (2008 est.);
GDP (official exchange rate): $5.603 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2010 est.); -1.2% (2009 est.); 9.3% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $700 (2010 est.); $700 (2009 est.); $700 (2008 est.);
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 39%; industry: 17%; services: 44% (2001);
Population below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%; highest 10%: 35.7% (2005);
Labor force: 4.688 million (2007);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 90%; industry: 6%; services: 4% (1995);
Unemployment rate: NA%;
Budget: revenues: $320 million (includes $134 million from foreign sources); expenditures: $320 million (2002 est.);
Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses;
Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2003 est.);
Electricity - production: 150 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 589.5 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 450 million kWh (2007 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
Displaying 1 to 4 of 52 items.
In Nigeria, Mexico, Iraq, Russia and Indonesia, billions of dollars of oil are being stolen, causing serious problems for governments and corporations.
The kidnapping of more than 200 schoolgirls should be the last straw. Nigeria must decisively end the menace of the insurgency group Boko Haram.
International efforts are being made to address Africa's energy deficiencies by developing renewable energy sources on a grand scale.
Maternal deaths occur at a rate 300 times higher in developing countries than in the developed world. International health initiatives are working to address the problem.