Background: The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered on Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, a newly established sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, but it never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al-Said overthrew the restrictive rule of his father; he has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.
Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Area land: 309,500 sq km
Area water: 0 sq km
Coastline: 2,092 km
Country name conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
Country name conventional short form: Oman
Country name former: Muscat and Oman
Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.2% (male 484,292/female 460,066); 15-64 years: 65.7% (male 1,133,329/female 856,701); 65 years and over: 3.1% (male 47,786/female 45,785) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 2.023% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 24.15 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 3.45 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 1.34 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female; total population: 1.23 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 15.47 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 15.78 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 15.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.22 years; male: 72.38 years; female: 76.16 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,100 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Omani(s); adjective: Omani;
Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African;
Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu) 25%;
Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects;
Literacy: definition: NA; total population: 81.4%; male: 86.8%; female: 73.5% (2003 census);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $76.53 billion (2010 est.); $73.87 billion (2009 est.); $72.42 billion (2008 est.);
GDP (official exchange rate): $53.78 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2010 est.); 2% (2009 est.); 12.8% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $25,800 (2010 est.); $25,400 (2009 est.); $25,400 (2008 est.);
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.4%; industry: 48.2%; services: 50.3% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: NA%;
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%; highest 10%: NA%;
Labor force: 968,800;
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%; industry: NA%; services: NA%;
Unemployment rate: 15% (2004 est.);
Budget: revenues: $20.5 billion; expenditures: $20.1 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber;
Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 13.58 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 11.36 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
(English Daily newspaper), Ruwi
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