Background: The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Area land: 229,891 sq km
Area water: 8,500 sq km
Coastline: 225 km
Country name conventional long form: none
Country name conventional short form: Romania
Country name former: none
Population: 21,904,551 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.8% (male 1,667,894/female 1,579,458); 15-64 years: 70.4% (male 7,684,514/female 7,725,957); 65 years and over: 14.8% (male 1,314,132/female 1,932,596) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: -0.252% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 9.55 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 11.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.02 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 12.44 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 9.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.98 years; male: 70.5 years; female: 77.66 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 16,000 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Romanian(s); adjective: Romanian;
Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census);
Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census);
Languages: Romanian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%;
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 97.3%; male: 98.4%; female: 96.3% (2002 census);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $253.3 billion (2010 est.); $258.2 billion (2009 est.); $277.9 billion (2008 est.);
GDP (official exchange rate): $158.4 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: -1.9% (2010 est.); -7.1% (2009 est.); 7.1% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $11,500 (2010 est.); $11,700 (2009 est.); $12,600 (2008 est.);
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12.8%; industry: 36%; services: 51.2% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 25% (2005 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%; highest 10%: 20.8% (2006);
Labor force: 9.35 million (2010 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 29.7%; industry: 23.2%; services: 47.1% (2006);
Unemployment rate: 8.2% (2010 est.); 7.8% (2009 est.);
Budget: revenues: $50.89 billion; expenditures: $62 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining;
Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 58.28 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 49.44 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 5.169 billion kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 921 million kWh (2008 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
Displaying 1 to 7 of 14 items.
(Independent, Conservative), Bucharest
(independent, conservative, business-oriented daily), Bucharest
(Independent, mass-circulation), Bucharest
(Romanian-language, edited in Colorado, USA),
(Centrist political party), Bucharest
Displaying 1 to 4 of 13 items.
With top energy producers in South-Eastern Europe vying for shares of the market, current pipeline competition will shape energy and political landscapes for the near future.
Mismanagement, corruption and theft on a very broad scale have brought Romania to disaster.
The degree to which the Romanian economy has begun to crumble, in both the state and private sectors, puts the country at imminent risk or national bankruptcy.
Since becoming a member of the European Union, Romania has aligned itself with Europe and the United States and almost totally disengaged from its post-cold war posture.