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Tonga

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Facts

Background: Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.
Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Area land: 717 sq km
Area water: 30 sq km
Coastline: 419 km
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
Country name conventional short form: Tonga
Country name former: Friendly Islands
Population: 105,916 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.2% (male 20,023/female 19,393); 15-64 years: 56.7% (male 30,125/female 29,959); 65 years and over: 6.1% (male 2,986/female 3,430) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 0.243% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 25.27 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -17.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.65 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 14.07 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 13.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.16 years; male: 73.79 years; female: 76.58 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 3.65 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA;
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA;
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA;
Nationality: noun: Tongan(s); adjective: Tongan;
Ethnic groups: Polynesian, Europeans;
Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents);
Languages: Tongan (official), English (official);
Literacy: definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English; total population: 98.9%; male: 98.8%; female: 99% (1999 est.);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $767 million (2010 est.); $770.9 million (2009 est.); $774.7 million (2008 est.);

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $301 million (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: -0.5% (2010 est.); -0.5% (2009 est.); 1.2% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,300 (2010 est.); $6,400 (2009 est.); $6,500 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25%; industry: 17%; services: 57% (FY05/06 est.);
Population below poverty line: 24% (FY03/04);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%; highest 10%: NA%;
Labor force: 39,960 (2007);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31.8%; industry: 30.6%; services: 2,003% (2003 est.);
Unemployment rate: 13% (FY03/04 est.);
Budget: revenues: $80.48 million; expenditures: $109.8 million (FY07/08 est.);
Industries: tourism, construction, fishing;
Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2003 est.);
Electricity - production: 43 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 39.99 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008);
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.

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