Turkmenistan

Map Turkmenistan
Maps copyright Hammond World Atlas Corp.

Flag of Turkmenistan

Facts

Background: Eastern Turkmenistan for centuries formed part of the Persian province of Khurasan; in medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1924. It achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country once extraction and delivery projects are expanded. The Turkmen Government is actively working to diversify its gas export routes beyond the still dominant Russian pipeline network. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president.
Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Area land: 469,930 sq km
Area water: 18,170 sq km
Coastline: 0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Country name conventional long form: none
Country name conventional short form: Turkmenistan
Country name former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Population: 4,997,503 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.5% (male 696,749/female 679,936); 15-64 years: 68.4% (male 1,692,885/female 1,724,019); 65 years and over: 4.1% (male 88,590/female 115,324) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 1.138% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 19.54 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 6.24 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 42.34 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 50.42 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 33.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.52 years; male: 65.57 years; female: 71.63 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2007 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 200 (2007 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2004 est.);
Nationality: noun: Turkmen(s); adjective: Turkmen;
Ethnic groups: Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003);
Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%;
Languages: Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%;
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 98.8%; male: 99.3%; female: 98.3% (1999 est.);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $36.64 billion (2010 est.); $33.01 billion (2009 est.); $31.11 billion (2008 est.);

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $27.96 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 11% (2010 est.); 6.1% (2009 est.); 10.5% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,400 (2010 est.); $6,800 (2009 est.); $6,400 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.2%; industry: 30%; services: 59.8% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 30% (2004 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%; highest 10%: 31.7% (1998);
Labor force: 2.3 million (2008 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 48.2%; industry: 14%; services: 37.8% (2004 est.);
Unemployment rate: 60% (2004 est.);
Budget: revenues: $1.97 billion; expenditures: $1.878 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing;
Industrial production growth rate: 7.3% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 15.5 billion kWh (2009 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 13 billion kWh (2009 est.);
Electricity - exports: 2.5 billion kWh (2009 est.);
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2009 est.);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.

Turkmenistan in the News

A Bargain in Turkmenistan

The dictator is dead, but you’d never know: his portrait dominates the capital, and people still instinctively whisper when they speak.

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