Map China
Maps copyright Hammond World Atlas Corp.

Flag of China


Background: For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. China since the early 1990s has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Area land: 9,569,901 sq km
Area water: 27,060 sq km
Coastline: 14,500 km
Country name conventional long form: People's Republic of China
Country name conventional short form: China
Country name former: People's Republic of China
Population: 1,336,718,015 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 126,634,384/female 108,463,142); 15-64 years: 73.6% (male 505,326,577/female 477,953,883); 65 years and over: 8.9% (male 56,823,028/female 61,517,001) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 0.493% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 12.29 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 7.03 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.133 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.17 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female; total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 16.06 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 15.61 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 16.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.68 years; male: 72.68 years; female: 76.94 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 740,000 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 26,000 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural); adjective: Chinese;
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census);
Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%;

note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect) (official), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry);
note: Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 91.6%; male: 95.7%; female: 87.6% (2007);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $9.872 trillion (2010 est.); $8.95 trillion (2009 est.); $8.204 trillion (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $5.745 trillion;
note: because China's exchange rate is determine by fiat, rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 10.3% (2010 est.); 9.1% (2009 est.); 9% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,400 (2010 est.); $6,800 (2009 est.); $6,200 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 9.6%; industry: 46.8%; services: 43.6% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 2.8%;
note: 21.5 million rural population live below the official "absolute poverty" line (approximately $90 per year); an additional 35.5 million rural population live above that level but below the official "low income" line (approximately $125 per year) (2007)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%; highest 10%: 15%;
note: data are for urban households only (2008)

Labor force: 780 million (2010 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 38.1%; industry: 27.8%; services: 34.1% (2008 est.);
Unemployment rate: 4.3% (September 2009 est.); 4.2% (December 2008 est.);
note: official data for urban areas only; including migrants may boost total unemployment to 9%; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas

Budget: revenues: $1.149 trillion; expenditures: $1.27 trillion (2010 est.);
Industries: world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites;
Industrial production growth rate: 11% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 3.451 trillion kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 3.438 trillion kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - exports: 16.64 billion kWh (2008);
Electricity - imports: 3.842 billion kWh (2008);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.


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Beijing Ribao/Beijing Daily

(Government-owned), Beijing

Caijing/Business and Financial Review

(Independent biweekly magazine), Beijing

China Daily

(State-run), Beijing

China View

(State-Owned, English-Language), Beijing

Hong Kong Commercial Daily

(Pro-Chinese Communist), Hong Kong

Keji Ribao/Science and Technology Daily

(government-owned), Beijing

Macau Closer

(English-language monthly), Macau

China in the News

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Displaying 49 to 52 of 106 items.

The Bird Flu Pandemic: Panic and Prevention

Countries around the world have taken preventive measures against a potential outbreak of bird flu, which has killed more than 60 people in Southeast Asia since it was first discovered in 2003.

Russia and China: Joint Military Exercises

Many observers contend that the maneuvers were meant to send a clear message to the United States, Japan, and the rest of the world. Comment and analysis from Taipei, London, Singapore and Tokyo.

Japanese P.M. Apologizes for Wartime Aggression

Following weeks of bitter protests by Chinese demonstrators remonstrating against Japanese wartime atrocities, Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has moved to heal the rift between the two nations by apologizing for Japan’s World War II record in a speech at the Asia-Africa leaders summit held last week in Jakarta, Indonesia.

We Are Taiwanese, We Are Chinese

As China continues to demand that Taiwan be recognized as domestic property, most experts agree that the island, which houses East Asia’s most stable democracy, will soon have to surrender to the geopolitical laws of gravity or commit itself, once and for all, to a determined trajectory, one that holds some hope of complete sovereignty.