What's at Stake for Whom

At a Glance:

Map of Pakistan
Despite a long history of exploration—the first well in what is modern Pakistan was drilled in 1857, the first commercial discovery was made in 1914—Pakistan remains a modest producer of oil and gas and currently imports 80 percent of its crude oil requirements. The country is self-sufficient in natural gas, although this is likely to change demand increases. Oil and natural gas each account for about 40 percent of Pakistan's commercial energy supplies but currently form only a small part of the country's economy. The state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC) remains the most important player in the Pakistani oil industry. Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. (PPL), established in 1950, produces the majority of the natural gas.

Foreign companies currently operating in Pakistan include: Union Texas Pakistan (produces around 30 percent of oil and 10 percent of natural gas); British Gas; Lasmo; OMV; Gaz de France; Shell; Unocal.

Pakistan is starved for cash. Pipelines leading from the oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan, across Afghanistan, to Pakistan, and, eventually, to the enormous Indian market could provide Pakistan with a much-needed injection of cash in transport fees.

Population: 144,616,639 (July 2001 est.)
Total Energy Output: 30.967 million tons of coal equivalent
Percent Exported: 1.3
Total Energy Consumption: 50.659 million tons of coal equivalent
Percent Imported: 42.6
Consumption per Head: 362 kg coal equivalent
Annual Petroleum Imports: US$1.3 billion
Gross Domestic Product: US$61.5 billion

Sources: U.S. Dept. of Energy; CIA World Factbook; Center for Strategic Studies; Economist Intelligence Unit; East-West Institute; Brookings Institution;Renmin Ribao (Communist Party daily), Beijing.